Treatable cancers are on the rise due to improved early diagnosis and more innovative treatments, and preventative strategies against cancer are becoming a global concern. With the rapidly increasing complexity of cancer treatment, a clear definition of what constitutes ethical cancer care has become a matter of great debate. This situation is more complex in a developing country where healthcare resources are limited. Doctors, nurses and public health professionals engaged in the prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment and research of cancers are often posed with ethical dilemmas while making complex choices. With a special focus on low- and middle-income countries, this paper is intended to highlight these real-world ethical concerns facing those involved in the management of cancer patients. While taking a neutral view, this paper has adopted a theme-wise approach to discuss barriers in cancer care.