Small-cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a rare but highly undifferentiated, aggressive malignancy that primarily affects young women. Due to its early onset, unclear familial history and vague presenting symptoms, most SCCOHT patients present late with advanced disease. The prognosis is extremely poor, with <10% disease-free survival for advanced stages. Although several therapeutic regimens have been proposed, to date there is no consensus on the optimal strategy.
Here, we describe a successful case of advanced-stage SCCOHT of the left ovary treated with cytoreductive surgery, semi-intense chemotherapy, high-dose consolidative chemotherapy, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and pelvic radiation with long-term survival. Given the almost universal mortality of advanced SCCOHT in long-term follow-up, we believe this case highlights the importance of prompt diagnosis when a young patient presents with abdominal swelling and hypercalcemia as well as early, aggressive, combined modality treatment. This case also especially remarkable given the patient underwent fertility preservation surgery, which is not recommended by most current literature. However, as therapies improve and more young patients may survive SCCOHT, the question of fertility will increase in relevance. We believe the pros and cons of conservation should be discussed in detail with the patient.