Several studies suggest race-based health disparities in men with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa), with African American males having poorer oncological outcomes. We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of pathological upgrading and upstaging in Jamaican men with low-risk PCa treated with radical prostatectomy (RP). Data on 141 men who met the National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for low-risk PCa and underwent RP at a single institution were reviewed. All men had a transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. Pre-operative clinical and final pathological data were obtained. Data were summarised as means and standard deviations or percentages as appropriate. Bivariate analyses such as independent samples t-tests and chi-square tables were conducted and logistic regression models were estimated to predict upgrading (>Gleason 6) and upstaging (p ≥ T3).
The mean age was 59.5 ± 7.8 years with mean prostate specific antigen (PSA) of 6.6 ± 2 ng/mL. A total of 48.3% of men were upgraded and 11.4% were upstaged. Bivariate analyses indicated that PSA (p = 0.008) and percentage positive cores (p = 0.002) were associated with upgrading. PSA (p = 0.042) and percentage positive cores (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with upstaging. The odds of upgrading increased with increased PSA levels (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.05–1.87, p = 0.021) or increased percentage positive cores (OR 8.27, 95% CI 2.19–31.16, p = 0.002). The odds of upstaging increased with increased PSA levels (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.01–1.96, p = 0.046) and with increased percentages positive cores (OR 11.4; 95% CI 2.06–63.09, p = 0.005). Jamaican men with low-risk PCa are at high risk of pathological upgrading and upstaging at RP. These findings should be taken into consideration when discussing treatment options with these patients.