The second EurocanPlatform summer school was held in Algarve, Portugal and attracted scientists, clinicians and pathologists with a common interest in cancer research to discuss the latest developments and challenges in the field. The meeting focused on translational cancer research and also included lectures, workshops and discussions, which covered all aspects of the translational research continuum, from early detection through treatment to survivorship. The rate of new cancer cases and cancer mortality increases every year. Although the last decade witnessed enormous progress in understanding cancer biology and the development of new therapies, the efficacy of these therapies is challenged by cancer resistance. It clearly suggests that new druggable targets are required and their translation from laboratory to bedside must be faster and more efficient to improve survival rates and standards of care.