Clinical and radiological manifestations associated with triple-negative breast cancer in women from northern Peru. A case-control study

27 Jun 2024
Raúl Sandoval-Ato, Patricia Coral-Gonzales, Sebastian Coronel-Arias, Luisa Espinoza-Mantilla, Grace Terrones-Chaparro, Victor Serna-Alarcón

Objective: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has an aggressive clinical behaviour, with advanced stages at initial diagnostic evaluation, early recurrences and poor survival, so the purpose was to determine the clinical and radiological manifestations associated with TNBC.

Materials and methods: A case-control study in women diagnosed with breast cancer from January 2015 to August 2022 at the ‘Instituto Regional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas del Norte’. We classified cases (Triple Negative subtype) and controls (Luminal A, Luminal B and HER2) according to immunohistochemistry ical analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: The medical reports of 88 cases and 236 controls were reviewed. Cases were more likely to report pain (p = 0.001), nodules on ultrasound (p = 0.01) and mammography (p = 0.003), superior median size (p < 0.05), posterior enhancement (p = 0.001) and moderate density (p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis identified that TNBC was more likely to have a nodular type lesion by ultrasound (OR: 9.73, 95% CI: 1.10–86.16; p = 0.04), ultrasound lesion larger than 36 mm (OR: 4.99, 95% CI: 1.75–14.17; p = 0.003) and moderate density (OR: 3.83, 95% CI: 1.44–10.14; p = 0.007).

Conclusion: There are particular clinical and imaging manifestations of TNBC, showing that radiological lesions that presented characteristics in ultrasound as nodular type lesions larger than 36 mm and in mammography moderate grade density, were associated with this subtype of breast tumours in a Peruvian population.

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