Background: Radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) remains the historical gold standard for treatment despite significant perioperative morbidity and subsequent quality of life concerns. Trimodal therapy (TMT) is gaining acceptance as an alternative bladder preserving approach. We aim to identify patients for whom TMT may be the optimal approach by constructing risk calculators of morbidity and mortality associated with RC.
Methods: Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, we selected patients diagnosed with MIBC undergoing RC, with a total of 10,642 patients identified. The primary outcome was mortality and secondary outcome was morbidity within 30 days of the procedure. We conducted multivariate logistic regression to obtain the best fit model for each outcome on 70% of the sample. Validation of the models was then performed on the remaining 30% of the sample. Model performance was assessed using discrimination and calibration abilities and a risk calculator was constructed for pre-operative counselling.
Results: Of the full cohort, 199 patients (1.9%) died and 2,328 patients (21.9%) experienced morbidity. Variables selected for the model predicting mortality included age, frailty, the American Society of Anesthesiologists status and preoperative creatinine. For the mortality model, the area under the curve was 72% with a Hosmer–Lemeshow statistic of 0.722. For the morbidity model, the area under the curve was 60% with a Hosmer–Lemeshow statistic of 0.287. Variables significant in the model included continent diversion, smoking and frailty.
Conclusion: We have constructed statistically significant and clinically relevant models using readily available health indicators to be used in multi-disciplinary discussion to provide high-risk patients with individualised risks of morbidity and mortality from RC, allowing for counselling for alternative treatments such as TMT.