Background: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has proven to be a key implementation to understanding biological pathways involved in cancer. In daily practice, the identification of somatic and germline mutations has allowed physicians to gather relevant information to make therapeutic decisions and benefit patients. Importantly, somatic mutations provide targeted opportunities for treatment and reveal resistance mechanisms to understand patients’ tumour evolution. Scanty data in clinical trials and in a real-world setting is available regarding the utility of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors in pathogenic or likely-pathogenic somatic breast cancer gene 1/2 (BRCA1/2) mutations and/or germline or somatic Homologous Recombination-Related Gene mutations in advanced breast cancer (ABC).
Case report: Here we report a real-life case of a 47-year-old postmenopausal woman with hormone receptor-positive (HR-positive) Epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic BC that had poor response to classic therapeutic strategies for HR+/HER2− ABC. At this point, the possibility of using NGS to guide the treatment was decided in a Molecular Tumour Board (MTB), and the patient had a major response to talazoparib targeting a non-germline BRCA2 mutation.
Conclusion: Undoubtedly, more information regarding the cost effectiveness of NGS is needed to develop adequate reimbursement policies for this technology. It should be highlighted that the generalisation of MTBs and the implementation of molecular screening programmes are greatly needed in our region to gain more knowledge of somatic mutations implicated in the Hispanic and Latin-American population with BC diagnosis. Recently presented results of randomised studies may support the evaluation of somatic mutations with NGS to find targeted therapies for ABC patients.