Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the CAPRA-S score (based on clinicopathological findings) and the subtypes of minimal residual disease (MRD) (based on the biological properties of cancer cells) to predict biochemical failure (BF) after prostatectomy radical.
Patients and methods: This was a prospective single-centre study of men who underwent radical prostatectomy. One month after surgery, the blood and bone marrow were taken for circulating prostate cell (CPC) and micrometastasis detection, identified using anti-PSA immunocytochemistry and defined as positive or negative. Patients were classified as Group A: CPC and micrometastasis negative, Group B: micrometastasis positive and CPC negative and Group C: CPC positive. CAPRA-S scores were classified as low, intermediate and high risk. Kaplan–Meier curves for biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS) and restricted mean survival time (RMST) to biochemical failure were determined and compared for up to 10 years.
Results: 347 men participated with a median follow-up of 7 years, BFFS decreased proportionally with increasing CAPRA-S score and HR 1.13 and 1.65 for intermediate and high risk, respectively. After 10 years, the BFFS and RMST were 68%, 47% and 16% and 9, 7 and 6 years, respectively. The BFFS curves for MRD were not proportional; Group A and B BFFSs were similar up to 5 years, and then, there was an increasing failure in Group B patients After 10 years, the BFFS and RMST were 95%, 57% and 27% and 10, 9 and 6 years respectively. The CAPRA-S score failed to distinguish between Groups A and B, and one-third of high-risk Group C had low-risk CAPRA-S scores. MRD hazard ratios were Group B 1.76 and Group C 4.03.
Conclusions: The MRD prognostic classification was superior to the CAPRA-S score in predicting BFFS and differentiated between early and late BF. The results need to be confirmed in larger studies.