Anal canal cancer in Brazil: why should we pay more attention to the epidemiology of this rare disease?

7 May 2020
Mauro DS Donadio, Rachel P Riechelmann

Anal canal cancer is one of the human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated diseases with increasing incidence. High-risk sexual behaviour and the resurgence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, associated with low HPV vaccine coverage, are risk factors for the increased incidence of this cancer. In this paper, the authors point out pertinent questions regarding the greater exposure of the population to some risk factors and discuss the latest epidemiological data of these factors, particularly those of concern to emerging countries like Brazil. The authors also discuss policies adopted that have not been successful to combat the HIV and HPV rise and that have direct consequences on the incidence of anal canal cancer.

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