Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of female death, with an annual mortality rate exceeding 200,000 in developing communities. Despite the past decade bearing witness to a reduction in cervical cancer cases throughout developed countries, the prevalence in developing countries continues to rapidly rise. The increase in cervical cancer cases is attributed to the lack of financial resources and the unavoidable risk factors of the disease. The means of traditional anticancer therapy are compromised by reduced drug potency, non-specificity, negative side effects and the development of multiple drug resistance, which leads to a decrease in the long-term anticancer therapeutic efficacy. Recent advances in nanomedicine have elucidated the potential of nanoparticles to reduce the side effects and improve the survival rate of patients, by enhancing selective delivery and uptake of photosensitive, therapeutic and genetic material to cervical cancer cells, thereby enhancing antitumour efficiency. This review paper analyses the risk factors and epidemiology of cervical cancer globally, and especially in developing communities, whilst demonstrating the enhanced anticancer treatment using selected nanoparticles.