Clinical Study

Cancer of the anal canal, a reality in the Colombian coffee region. Clinical-epidemiological review 2000–2019

9 Feb 2021
Carlos Raúl Villegas Mejía, Manuel Villegas Jaramillo, Pedro Villegas Jaramillo

Introduction: Anal cancer is a rare pathology which has increased over the last few decades, and, therefore, gained importance for the quality of life of affected individuals. Thus, a review has been conducted in the Colombian coffee region (Departments of Caldas, Quindío y Risaralda) describing its behaviour and clinical-epidemiological profile.

Materials and methods: Descriptive review of 437 patients of Western SAS Oncologists between January 2000 and December 2019 with a diagnosis of anal cancer.

Results: 62% of cases presented in women with a median age of 62 years, 30% in the sixth decade; centred at 65% in three main cities designated as capitals (Manizales, Pereira and Armenia); 62% as localised disease, with 40% stage II-A and 6% as initial metastasis; 29% presented positive ganglia, particularly N1a; squamous cell or epidermoid histology in 90%; 16% poorly differentiated; 5% related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection; localisation in the medial area of the anal canal in 63% of cases; 83% completed treatment, and 92% of them received chemotherapy/radiation therapy with 87% based on the Nigro protocol; finally, 11% presented with relapse in the liver in 10% of cases and 55% local.

Conclusion: Four hundred and thirty-seven patients evaluated over 20 years with follow up at median 34.13 months (standard deviation 41.75) with median survival at later ages decreasing to 62% in patients older than 80 years, and differences in survival in localised disease at 78% in comparison to 46% in advanced metastasis. Finally, the overall 5-year survival rate is 69% with a median survival of 191 months in the study.

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