Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer (CC), the second most common cause of cancer deaths in Venezuela. Early detection and prompt treatment of precancerous lesions prevent up to 80% of CC cases. In Venezuela, difficult access to CC screening means that the disease is detected at advanced stages, especially in more vulnerable indigenous populations. The aim of the study was to detect precancerous cervical lesions and HPV infection in 60 women who attended the gynaecology service at the Maniapure Outpatient Clinic in Bolivar State, Venezuela. The study was carried out to detect precancerous cervical lesions using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), the Schiller test and conventional cytology (Pap testing). HPV detection and typing were carried out using the polymerase chain reaction. 58.3% of the women in the study belonged to the Eñepa indigenous community and 41.7% were white Creole women. The Schiller test showed irregularities in the staining of the exocervical epithelium in 8.33% of the patients, suggesting HPV infection. VIA was positive for 10.0% of the women. In the cytopathology report, 81.67% tested negative for intraepithelial lesions. The overall frequency of HPV detection was 35.0%. HPV infection was detected in 45.71% of the Eñepa women and 20.0% of the Creole women. 71.43% of the women had a high-risk single HPV infection. The percentage of viral infection was lower in the Creole patients than in the indigenous population; therefore, CC screening programmes in the latter population need to be improved.