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Human papillomavirus serotypes and determinants among women with invasive cervical cancer in Katsina state, Northwest-Nigeria: a multicentre study

13 Jun 2024
Fatima Abubakar Rasheed, Ibrahim Adamu Yakasai, Aisha Abdurrahman, Asma’u Usman, Nafisat Yusuf

Background: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of gynaecological cancer death among women in developing countries and the most preventable of all gynaecological cancers as its infectious aetiological agent, human papillomavirus (HPV), is known. The knowledge of HPV serotype distribution in a sub-region is key to the implementation of an appropriate HPV vaccination programme.

Aim: To assess the prevalence of HPV-DNA, serotypes and risk-determinants among women with invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Katsina State, Northwestern Nigeria.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study involving Federal Teaching Hospital Katsina, General Hospital Katsina and Turai Yar’adua Maternal and Child Hospital Katsina, Nigeria. Sixty-three women with histologically confirmed cervical cancer who fulfilled the criteria were recruited into the study. Tissue blocks with a confirmed diagnosis of ICC were taken to DNA Labs Kaduna for HPV-deoxyribonucleotide acid detection and typing. An interviewer-administered questionnaire developed for the study was used to obtain socio-demographic, reproductive characteristics and the other risk factors for HPV acquisition and persistence.

Results: The HPV-positivity rate in ICC was 95.5% while the prevalence of high-risk HPV (Hr-HPV)-DNA in the specimen was 54.6% with 13 HPV-serotypes detected, 9 Hr-HPV types (16,18,31,33,35,45,51,56,82) and 4 low-risk HPV types (6,44,81,89). The most commonly detected HPV serotype among women with a single HPV infection was HPV 81 (40.9%) followed by HPV 16 (28.8%). However, HPV 16 was the most common serotype among those with multiple HPV infections. Prevalence of other detected serotypes were HPV 31 (24.2%), 33 (24.2%), HPV 18 (10.6%), HPV 35 (3.0%), HPV 45 (9.1%), HPV 44 (1.5%), HPV 51 (3.0%), HPV 56 (3.0%), HPV 82 (1.5%), HPV 89 (1.5%) and HPV 6 (1.5%). Forty-four out of 63 women (69.8%) had a single HPV infection, 19 (30.2%) had multiple HPV infections and 15 (24.3%) were co-infected with HPV 16/31/33. There was a statistically significant association between HPV 16 and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

Conclusion: The study demonstrates a prevalence of HPV-DNA as 95.5% among women with ICC. The most commonly detected HPV serotype was HPV 81 seen in 41% which was an uncommon finding. Furthermore, statistically significant associations between HPV serotypes 16 and 82 with SCC were detected.

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