Childhood cancers are a broad range of diseases. Research on the chemopreventive potential of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin (acetylsalicylate) has yet to be fully directed towards childhood cancers. A prima facie hypothesis on salicylate and childhood cancer would therefore be based on several factors. Firstly, salicylate inhibits the production of inflammatory prostaglandins, which have been shown to stimulate the growth of cancer cells. Secondly, salicylate inhibits the growth of cancer cells in pre-clinical models. Thirdly, salicylate is a natural component of fruits and vegetables so it is consumed within the diet. Further research, of which some possibilities are identified, is recommended.