Metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: a retrospective multicentre analysis on prognostic and predictive factors to chemotherapy

20 Mar 2023
Samara T Pacheco, Mauro D Donadio, Felipe Almeida, Juan M O'Connor, Valeria De Miguel, Mariano Dioca, Jose Huaman, Arinilda C Bragagnoli, Rui F Weschenfelder, Paola M Beltran, Rachel P Riechelmann

Background: Prognostic and predictive markers in metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (mPPGL) are unknown. We aimed to evaluate epidemiology of mPPGL, and prognostic factors of overall survival (OS) and predictive markers of treatment duration with first-line chemotherapy (TD1L).

Patients and methods: Retrospective multicentre study of adult patients with mPPGL treated in Latin American centres between 1982 and 2021.

Results: Fifty-eight patients were included: 53.4% were female, median age at diagnosis of mPPGL was 36 years and 12.1% had a family history of PPGL. The primary site was adrenal, non-adrenal infradiaphragmatic and supradiaphragmatic in 37.9%, 34.5% and 27.6%, respectively. 65.5% had a functioning tumour and 62.1% had metachronous metastases. Positive uptakes were found in 32 (55.2%) 68Gallium positron emission tomography (PET/CT), 27 (46.6%) 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose PET/CT and 37 (63.8%) of 131Iodine-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) tests. Twenty-three (40%) patients received first-line chemotherapy, with cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine used in 12 (52%) of patients. At a median follow-up of 62.8 months, median TD1L was 12.8 months. Either functional exams, tumour functionality, pathological characteristics or primary tumour location were significantly associated with response or survival. Yet, negative MIBG, Ki67 ≥ 10%, infradiaphragmatic location and functional tumours were associated with numerically inferior OS.

Conclusions: In patients with mPPGL, prognostic and predictive factors to chemotherapy are still unknown, but negative MIBG uptake, Ki67 ≥ 10%, infradiaphragmatic location and functional tumours were numerically linked to worse OS. Our results should be further validated in larger and independent cohorts.

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