Clinical Study

Prognostic factors and outcomes of nonseminomatous germ cell tumours of testis—experience from a tertiary cancer centre in India

18 Nov 2020
Lekha Madhavan Nair, KM Jagathnath Krishna, Aswin Kumar, Susan Mathews, John Joseph, Francis Vadakkumparambil James

Germ cell tumour of the testis is the most common cancer in young men in the western world. India has the lowest incidence globally, and hence Indian data are sparse. We report the outcomes of patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumours of testis treated at a tertiary cancer centre in South India over a period of 10 years. Patients with a histopathological diagnosis of nonseminomatous germ cell tumours of the testis from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2016 were included in the study. Patient demographics, tumour characteristics and treatment details were retrieved from case records. Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Cox regression model was used to analyse the prognostic factors.

One hundred and nineteen patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumours of the testis were included in the study. The median follow-up was 81 months. The estimated 4-year OS and progression-free survival were 87.1% and 84.5%, respectively. The four-year OS for good, intermediate and poor-risk groups was 93.6%, 87.5% and 52.6%, respectively. The PFS at 4 years was 91.4%, 87.8% and 47.4% for good, intermediate and poor-risk groups, respectively. The presence of nonpulmonary visceral metastasis and biochemical response after chemotherapy were significant predictors for OS and PFS in multivariate cox proportional hazards regression. The survival figures are comparable to the rest of the world except in the poor prognostic risk group. The inferior survival noticed in this group of patients may be due to the lack of good salvage procedures. High-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell support may be considered more often for this group of patients.

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