Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among Sudanese men and most patients present at a late stage. Although the incidence of prostate cancer in Sudan is low compared to other African countries, studies on prostate cancer in Sudan are limited. This study addresses the clinical characteristics and outcomes of prostate cancer in Central Sudan and its prognostic factors.
Methodology: This study was conducted prospectively at the Gezira Hospital for Renal Disease and Surgery and at the National Cancer Institute at the University of Gezira, Sudan, for an 11-year period.
Results: During the study period, 543 patients participated in the study. Each one underwent a clinical examination, digital rectal examination and radiological staging using magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and provided blood samples for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. The mean (SD) age of patients was 72.6 (9.9) years. At diagnosis, the majority of patients experienced lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS; 54%), bladder outlet obstructions (OU) without (18%) or with urine retention (14%), PSA median was 100 ng/mL and the mean was 269 ng/mL, locally advanced disease (45%) or distant metastasis (46%). The age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of mortality was twofold, comparing patients presented with OU to patients with LUTS. Patients diagnosed with locally advanced and castration resistance prostate cancer had five times the HR compared to patients diagnosed with organ-confined prostate. On the contrary, the HR increased sevenfold for patients with distant metastasis. Gleason score did not show a significant association with survival (p = 0.249). Similarly, there was no apparent dose–response association between the PSA levels at diagnosis (p = 0.460).
Conclusion: The findings suggest that Sudanese men who are living in Central Sudan present at diagnosis with large tumours at late stages, and high PSA levels and Gleason scores. Improving awareness and building up the treatment capacity are key to achieving better outcomes.