Objectives: Cervical cancer in the setting of uterovaginal prolapse is exceedingly rare. Altered anatomy can complicate treatment of underlying cancer. We first present a rare case of cervical cancer with invasion of uterovaginal prolapse as well as a systematic review of similar reported cases in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare the practice patterns and outcomes regarding cervical cancer with invasion of procidentia.
Methods: We conducted a systematic search of online databases (PubMed, Embase, Medline and the Cochrane Library) from 1990 to 2018 of all the cases of cervical cancer associated with stage III–IV uterovaginal prolapse. Patient demographics, pathology, surgical management, chemotherapy, radiation and disease-free survival were compared.
Results: Fifteen reported cases of cervical cancer in the setting of procidentia were identified (squamous cell carcinoma—14, clear cell carcinoma—1). The mean age at diagnosis was 74 years (range 54–89). Thirteen percent (n = 2) of cases presented with FIGO stage I disease, 67% (n = 10) with stage II, and 20% (n = 3) with stage III. All cases had stage III–IV uterovaginal prolapse. 73% (11) were treated surgically including nine patients who underwent vaginal hysterectomy. Among patients who underwent primary surgery, 7% (1) received adjuvant chemotherapy, 33% (5) adjuvant radiotherapy and 21% (3) both adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. 33% (5) of surgical cases included procedures to address the pelvic organ prolapse (colpoclesis (n = 3), uterosacral suspension (n = 1) and anterior posterior repair (n = 1)). Two patients died from the disease within 12 months, one patient died from other causes within 1 month, and the remainder of patients were free of disease at last reported follow-up (Table 1).
Conclusions: Cervical cancer in the setting of stage III–IV uterovaginal prolapse can be managed successfully with standard treatment strategies (primary surgery with adjuvant therapy as necessary versus chemoradiation). When patients are surgical candidates, techniques to address the underlying prolapse can be used for symptomatic improvement.