Prostate cancer is one of the most significant pathologies in the field of urology. The adoption of screening strategies and improvements in biopsies have resulted in an increase in early-stage tumour detection.
Radical global therapies provide very good oncological results in localised prostate cancer. However, excess treatment in low- and, in some cases, intermediate-risk groups affects the quality of life of these patients.
In the case of localised prostate cancer, focal therapies offer a minimally invasive option with good results with respect to established treatments. Although this is currently not a standard treatment, it represents the therapeutic approach with the greatest potential.
This literature review has the following objectives: to define selection criteria for patients who are candidates for focal therapy, to assess the current situation and results of the different therapeutic options, and to define procedures in cases of recurrence and for follow-ups.
We concluded that focal therapy is a viable therapeutic alternative for localised prostate cancer, specifically cryosurgery and high-intensity targeted ultrasound, which have acceptable oncologic results and a lower comorbidity compared with global treatments. Studies with a high level of scientific evidence are still needed to validate these results.
Acquisition of evidence: A search was carried out on the Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane databases of all papers published before 31 July 2013. We included clinical studies and literature reviews that evaluated primary focal therapy for prostate cancer confirmed by biopsy and excluded focal rescue therapy studies. The keywords used were focal therapy and prostate cancer.
Initially, we found 42 articles; 15 studies were excluded because they did not meet the minimum criteria for inclusion. A total of 1350 cases were treated throughout 27 studies.