Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent cancer and the main cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide and in Brazil. A high proportion of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) in Brazil, mainly due to limited coverage of screening programmes. A disparity in the access to optimal treatment is evident between the public and private health systems which impact patient outcomes. Clinical research is an opportunity for patients, institutions and investigators and therefore should be facilitated through a better regulatory environment. In a country facing a trend of increasing BC incidence for the next years, it is critical to improve BC screening and incorporate new medicines and devices into the public health system to control the burden of LABC.