Purpose: Native sub-Saharan African black men (SSBM) are disproportionately impacted by higher stage and incurable forms of prostate cancer (PCa). This study evaluates the natural history and survival of a cohort of SSBM with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
Methods: A retrospective study of patients with CRPC as defined by the Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 managed at a centre in sub-Saharan Africa between January 2011 and December 2015 was conducted. The principal endpoint was overall survival (OS). Potential prognostic variables were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression models.
Results: A total of 48 patients were identified. Median (IQR) age and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis were 70 (64–74.5) years and 42 (8.0–123.6) ng/mL, respectively. Only 15 (31.3%) patients received docetaxel and one patient each received the novel drugs enzalutamide and abiraterone. Twenty-eight patients (58.3%) died during follow-up with a median OS of 11 (95% CI: 8–14) months. Docetaxel chemotherapy and ECOG performance status were found to be prognostic (docetaxel use: hazard ratio 0·25, 95% CI 0·10–0·67, p = 0·006; ECOG 0–2: 0·26, 0·11–0·62, p = 0·003).
Conclusion: This study of SSBM with CRPC revealed a mainly unmodulated clinical course with poor access to active treatments and poor survival. Improving access to new active therapies would improve survival.