Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in early childhood is characterised by a high frequency of recurrent genomic aberrations associated with distinct myeloid subtypes, clinical outcomes and pathogenesis. Genomic instability is the first step of pathogenic mechanism in early childhood AML. A sum of adverse events is necessary to the development of infant AML (i-AML), which includes latency of biochemical-molecular and cellular effects. Inherited genetic susceptibility associated with exposures to biotransformation substances can modulate the risk of DNA damage and it is a very important piece in the pathogenic puzzle. In this review, we have aimed to explore the chain of events in the time-points of the natural history of i-AML, which includes maternal exposures during pregnancy, the speculations about the formation of somatic mutations during foetal life and the secondary genomic aberrations associated with i-AML. The modulation of risk conferred by xenobiotic metabolism´s genes variants is the bottom line of the pathogenic process. Since we have conducted observational and molecular investigations in early childhood leukaemia, the data focused here is based on Brazilian findings with summarised results of our experience with epidemiological and molecular studies in early-age leukaemia.