In urology, the main use for the robotic technique has been in radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Robotic surgery for other organs, such as the kidneys and bladder, has been less explored. However, partial nephrectomy or radical nephroureterectomy can be difficult for inexperienced laparoscopic surgeons. The advent of the da Vinci robot, with multijointed endowristed instruments and stereoscopic vision, decreases the technical difficulty of intracorporeal suturing and improves the reconstructive steps.
The objective of this article is to offer an overview of all robotic procedures recently developed in the field of urology. We evaluate the feasibility of these procedures and their potential advantages and disadvantages. We also describe perioperative, postoperative, and oncologic outcomes of robot-assisted surgery as well as perform a comparison with open and laparoscopic techniques.
Comparative data and an adequate follow-up are needed to demonstrate equivalent oncologic outcomes in comparison with traditional open or laparoscopic procedures.