The number of cancer patients in Nigeria continues to rise; however, global advances in cancer research are making the provision of optimal care possible. Cancer management is globally agreed to be multidisciplinary, with patients now having the right to benefit from progress in systemic cancer therapy and radio-diagnosis by receiving treatment from adequately trained and highly skilled clinical and radiation oncologists. Radiation oncology is part of the three divisions that make up oncology – medical oncology, surgical oncology and radiation oncology. This discipline in recent times has been developed into Clinical Oncology and although both clinical oncologists and medical oncologists continue to deliver non-surgical cancer treatment, only clinical oncologists are qualified to deliver radiotherapy in the management of cancers. Though clinical oncologists continue to provide quality cancer workforce for the country’s increasing number of cancer patients, much is still unknown about this discipline in Nigeria. It is hoped that inspiring radio-oncologists will take note of the information provided by this article as a guide. This paper chronicles the multifarious process involved in training to become a clinical and radiation-oncologist in Nigeria, plus the requirements, as well as pertinent information a budding physician seeking to advance in this highly specialised field requires.