The relative benefit of bevacizumab in ovarian cancer (OC) patients is greater the more the disease becomes platinum-resistant. Among other mechanisms of action, antiangiogenic agents may induce homologous recombination deficiency. Cyclin E1 (CCNE1) overexpression is a proposed marker of platinum resistance and is mutually exclusive with deficiency in homologous recombination. In this study, we evaluated the predictive value of CCNE1 expression with regard to the efficacy of bevacizumab. We retrospectively evaluated data from patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent OC who were treated with chemotherapy (CT) plus bevacizumab (Bev group) or CT alone (CT group) at a tertiary cancer centre from 2005 to 2017. The two groups were paired according to histology, platinum-free interval (PFI) and number of previous treatment lines. Progression-free survival (PFS) was compared between groups by log rank test and Cox regression. A total of 124 patients were included, with 62 in each group. The groups were well balanced regarding histology, PFI and number of previous treatment lines. Median PFS (mPFS) was 19.5 months for the Bev group versus 16.0 months for CT group (p = 0.150). By multivariate analysis, the HR for PFS was 2.25 (95% CI: 1.10–4.60) for CCNE1 overexpression. The benefit of bevacizumab was larger in the subgroups of patients with PFI 6–12 months (mPFS 18.6 versus 10.4 months, p = 0.002) and CCNE1 overexpression (mPFS 16.3 versus 7.0 months, p = 0.010). In conclusion, CCNE1 overexpression and PFI may suggest which patients will receive the greatest benefit from bevacizumab. These data, if confirmed by other studies, could help better select patients for antiangiogenic therapy.