Case Report

Successful long-term management of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma with nivolumab: a case report and literature review

30 Nov 2023
Nicolás Duque Clavijo, Paula A Lara, John Alejandro Murillo Silva, Iván Camilo Triana, Henry Alexander Vargas, Luis Eduardo Pino, Javier Mauricio Segovia, Erick Andrés Cantor

In Colombia, renal cancer is a rare condition, with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) being the most prevalent neoplasm. In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have been proposed for the management of metastatic disease, as they have shown improved rates of response and long-term survival. Furthermore, they exhibit a favourable tolerance profile, and adverse events causing significant morbidity are infrequent. We report the case of a 61-year-old male patient initially diagnosed with early-stage ccRCC who underwent right nephrectomy in 2009. Six years later, disease recurrence with metastatic compromise was documented, which led to the resection of the L1 vertebral body followed by radiotherapy and maintenance treatment with sunitinib. Due to disease progression, treatment with sunitinib was discontinued. Subsequently, everolimus was initiated as second-line immunotherapy, which was later discontinued due to the appearance of new metastatic lesions. In 2017, the patient was referred to our institution, where a third-line pharmacological treatment with nivolumab was initiated. In 2022, complete remission by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) was evidenced, which has been sustained to date. This case demonstrates the efficacy and safety of ICI in patients with metastatic ccRCC. The case presented is relevant in that it describes the achievement of complete remission in a patient who did not respond to the first two lines of immunotherapy. Given the limited literature regarding the discontinuation of therapy after achieving sustained remission, further research is warranted to explore this topic.

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