Clinical Study

Treatment outcomes and prognostic factors of esthesioneuroblastoma— a retrospective study from South India

27 Jul 2023
Lekha Madhavan Nair, John Mohan Mathew, Malu Rafi, Kainickal Cessal Thommachan, Jagathnath Krishna KM, Bipin T Varghese, Rejnish Ravikumar

Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) or olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from the neural crest cells of the olfactory epithelium. The optimum treatment for this rare disease is still unclear. Most of the available literature on this rare head and neck tumour is limited to small retrospective series and single institutional reports. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the clinical profile, treatment outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with ENB treated at a tertiary cancer centre in south India. Patients with a histopathological diagnosis of ENB treated from 2000 to 2019 were included. Patient demographics, tumour characteristics, stage, treatment details and outcome data were identified from medical records. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method and the log-rank test was used for comparison. The prognostic factors were identified using Cox regression analysis. Forty-two patients underwent treatment for ENB from 2000 to 2019. Twenty-six patients underwent surgery. Twelve patients received radical radiotherapy (RT) while 24 patients underwent adjuvant radiation. After a median follow-up of 71 months, the estimated OS and DFS at 4 years were 64.4% and 54%, respectively. The estimated 4-year OS for modified Kadish A, B, C and D stages was 75.0%, 90.9%, 56.4% and 0%, respectively. Modified Kadish stage, nodal involvement, orbital invasion, intracranial extension, surgery, RT treatment and use of chemotherapy were significant predictors of OS and DFS in univariate Cox regression analysis. Orbital invasion and RT treatment were significant predictors of DFS in the multivariate analysis as well. However, only RT treatment came out to be a significant predictor for OS in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment. Adjuvant RT may improve local control and survival in advanced cases. Advanced modified Kadish stage, lymph node involvement and orbital invasion are associated with poor outcomes.

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