Dr Christine Desmedt discusses research that attempts to predict the efficacy of anthracyclines. The results of this study validate the use of topoisomerase II alpha as a predictive marker for the efficacy of anthracyclines. Further to this, the gene expression profiles in tumour biopsies were correlated against the response to treatment seen in the patients. This revealed that some gene expression signatures linked with tumour stroma and immune response are associated with the response to anthracyclines. These immune response and stromal signatures were integrated with the TOP2A signature to give an anthracycline based chemo sensitivity score. This score can be used to identify which patients do not need anthracyclines.