ecancermedicalscience

Review

The use of intravesical BCG in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

26 Feb 2019
Omar Alhunaidi, Alexandre R Zlotta

The high recurrence and progression rates of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) have led investigators to study the use of intravesical therapy in order to prevent them. Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) has been successfully used for this indication to treat NMIBC for more than four decades.

BCG is the only intravesical agent shown to reduce the risk of progression of NMIBC to muscle-invasive disease. Despite over 40 years of clinical use, the precise mechanism of action for what has often been considered the most successful cancer immunotherapy in humans remains largely unknown.

Unfortunately, BCG therapy is not a universal panacea and it still fails in up to 40% of patients. Many of these patients, especially in the high-risk category (T1 high-grade disease, carcinoma in situ) will require aggressive therapy like cystectomy or in selected cases, bladder-sparing options like chemo-radiation. Indeed, there is no gold standard intravesical treatment after BCG failure.

Article metrics: 7401 views
658
6743

Related Articles

Nigel P Murray, Sócrates Aedo, Cynthia Fuentealba, Eduardo Reyes, Aníbal Salazar, Eghon Guzman, Shenda Orrego
Akhil Kapoor, Vanita Noronha, Vijay M Patil, Amit Joshi, Nandini Menon, Abhishek Mahajan, Amit Janu, Kumar Prabhash
Charlien Berghen, Steven Joniau, Christof Vulsteke, Maarten Albersen, Gaëtan Devos, Kato Rans, Karin Haustermans, Gert De Meerleer
Milan Terzic, Melanie Norton, Sanja Terzic, Gauri Bapayeva, Gulzhanat Aimagambetova
Viviane Teixeira Loiola de Alencar, Maria Nirvana Formiga, Vladmir Cláudio Cordeiro de Lima