BAY 61-3606, CDKi, and sodium butyrate treatments alter gene expression in human vestibular schwannomas and cause cell death in vitro

20 Dec 2012
Rohan Mitra, Indira Devi Bhagavatula, Rajalakshmi Gope

Background: Disrupted kinase and signaling pathways are found in many human cancers and they are implicated in carcinogenesis. Therefore, kinases have been important targets for the development of cancer therapeutics. Human vestibular schwannomas (VS) are the third most common intracranial tumours which occur in the vestibular branch of VIIIth cranial nerve. Sodium butyrate (Na-Bu) is a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) and with therapeutic efficacy. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) has been implicated in many immunological consequences and is a putative target for cancer treatment.

Aims and objectives: The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effect Na-Bu, 2,4-Diamino-5-oxo-pyrimidine hydrochloride (CDKi), a broad spectrum kinase inhibitor and BAY 61-3606 (Syk inhibitor) on the survival of VS tumour tissues in vitro and their possible effects on cell survival/death and levels of a few key proteins in the treated cells as compared to the untreated cells.

Material and methods: Fresh tumour tissues were collected randomly from 16 patients with sporadic, VS tumours, minced into pieces and maintained in primary cultures. Twenty four hours later these cells were exposed to Na-Bu, BAY 61-3606 or CDKi. Forty eight hours after exposure, the tissue lysates were analysed by western blotting for expression of pRb and other proteins involved in cell survival/death.

Summary and significance of the findings: The tissue samples used were positive for S100A protein, the maker for schwann cells confirming the VS tumour samples. The three individual treatments led to morphological change, DNA fragmentation and cell death and significantly reduced level of total and phosphorylated forms of pRb protein and drastically reduced EGF-R protein. These treatments also modulated levels of other proteins involved in cell survival/death such as PI3K, Caspase 3, TGF-b1, JNK, ASK1, Shh, NF-kB, p21cip1/waf1. The Untreated cells had uncleaved PARP-1 protein and the treated cells had cleaved PARP-1. The results show that the observed cell death in treated cells perhaps is mediated by modulation of the levels and processing of certain key proteins. The possible development of these components as therapeutics is discussed.

Keywords: Na-Bu, CDKi, BAY61-3606, human VS tumours, cell cycle proteins

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