Background: Malignant transformation in endometriosis was first described by Sampson in 1925. There is now sufficient evidence of its association specifically with endometrioid (EOC) and clear cell ovarian cancer (CCOC). Whether endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) is a distinct clinicopathological entity from non-endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (NEAOC) remains uncertain.
Objectives: This study aimed to assess the impact of endometriosis on clinical characteristics and survival outcomes in EOC and CCOC.
Methods: This is a retrospective single-institution analysis of patients diagnosed with CCOC AND EOC between 2010 and 2021. Demographic and clinical presentation data were obtained from medical records. Patients were followed up till March 2023. Statistical analysis was done using the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 Windows.
Results: Of the 77 cases of CCOC and EOC ovary, 38 had histopathologically proven endometriosis. There was no difference in age (51.62 and 50.05 years, respectively), body mass index, parity, menopausal status and CA 125 levels at presentation. Ascites was more frequent in the absence of endometriosis (30% versus 8.1%, p = 0.015). However, this did not translate to a statistical difference in the stage, with the majority presenting in the early stage. (94% versus 83%). All 78 patients underwent primary cytoreduction with equal rates of optimal resection.
There was no difference in the mean disease-free interval between EAOC and NEAOC (107.6 and 109.4 months, p 0.484). Recurrences were predominantly pelvic in both groups. The disease-specific survival was 111.7 and 120.1 months, respectively, with and without endometriosis. This was however not statistically significant (p 0.751).
Conclusion: In the Indian population, endometriosis did not have any impact on the age at presentation, CA 125 levels, stage of the disease and survival outcomes in EOC and CCOC ovary.