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Diagnostic accuracy of SATB2 in identifying primary and metastatic colorectal carcinoma: a comparative immunohistochemical study

19 Dec 2022
Manar S Elnady, Faika A Eltatawy, Azima G Nosseir, Yomna A Zamzam, Dina M El-Guindy

Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a new marker that could identify the colonic origin, but whether its expression is preserved in metastatic colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate SATB2 validity in the identification of CRC either alone or in combination with caudal-type homeobox 2 (CDX2) and/or cytokeratin 20 (CK20). Moreover, we examined the concordance of SATB2 expression in primary CRC and paired metastatic specimen. Immunohistochemical expression of SATB2, CDX2 and CK20 was evaluated in primary CRC, 50 paired metastatic CRC and 80 non-CRC specimens. This study demonstrated that the ideal SATB2 cut-off value for recognising colonic from non-colonic origin was 10%. SATB2 was more sensitive and specific than CK20. However, it was more specific but less sensitive than CDX2. Analysing the combined markers expression, SATB2 and CDX2 combination revealed better sensitivity, specificity and larger area under curve compared to SATB2 alone, CDX2 alone and combined CDX2 and CK20. Moreover, SATB2 was able to retain its expression at the metastatic sites. SATB2 was totally concordant between primary CRC and their paired metastatic sites (concordance rate = 100%) with perfect level of agreement. SATB2 could be considered as an accurate diagnostic marker of primary and metastatic CRC. SATB2 and CDX2 is the best combination serving the highest sensitivity and specificity in detection of CRC.

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