In low and middle-income countries, access to cancer diagnosis and treatment is suboptimal. Further, compliance to cancer treatment is a major issue due to various reasons including financial barriers, lack of family support and fear of treatment. This article discusses the determinants of treatment completion in cancer patients of a government-run hospital, in a rural part of Punjab in India. The Sangrur hospital-based cancer registry data for the year 2018 have been used. We have registered 2,969 cancer cases, out of which 2,528 (85%) cases were eligible for the analysis. Of the total 2,528 cases, 1,362 (54%) cases completed the cancer directed treatment and 1,166 (46%) did not. The data have been collected from the electronic medical record (EMR) department and entered into CanReg5 software. The bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed to see the effect of variables on the treatment completion. The results indicate that the elderly age group (>60 years) (odds ratio (OR): 0.52, (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31–0.86)), distance from hospital (OR: 0.67, (95% CI: 0.50–0.89)) and access to government health schemes (OR: 0.13, (95% CI: 0.10–0.19)] have direct correlation with the treatment completion. The educated patients (OR: 1.49, (95% CI: 1.13–1.96)) and patients who received curative treatment (OR: 2.7, (95% CI: 1.88–3.88)) have shown 58% and 84% compliance to treatment completion, respectively. The other variables like the clinical extent of disease, religion, gender and income do not have any significant effect on the treatment completion. Determinants like age (young), education, distance from the hospital, curative treatment and availability of government health schemes for financial support have shown positive effects on treatment completion. These factors have to be considered by the cancer hospitals, health departments and policymakers while planning for cancer care or control in India.