The cover for issue 30 of Oncotarget features Figure 4, "RNAseq results demonstrating differences between normal, cancer, and redirected cells," by Frank-Kamenetskii, et al. which reported that the influence of breast cancer cells on normal cells of the microenvironment, such as fibroblasts and macrophages, has been heavily studied but the influence of normal epithelial cells on breast cancer cells has not.
Here using in vivo and in vitro models the Oncotarget authors demonstrate the impact epithelial cells and the mammary microenvironment can exert on breast cancer cells.
Under specific conditions, signals that originate in epithelial cells can induce phenotypic and genotypic changes in cancer cells.
The authors have termed this phenomenon “cancer cell redirection.”
Once breast cancer cells are redirected, either in vivo or in vitro, they lose their tumour forming capacity and undergo a genetic expression profile shift away from one that supports a cancer profile towards one that supports a non-tumourigenic epithelial profile.
These findings indicate that epithelial cells and the normal microenvironment influence breast cancer cells and that under certain circumstances restrict proliferation of tumourigenic cells.
Dr. Brian W. Booth from Clemson University said, "Tissue microenvironments are complex regions that consist of multiple cell types such as epithelial cells, adipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, resident and transient immune cells, and somatic stem cells"
Tissue microenvironments are complex regions that consist of multiple cell types such as epithelial cells, adipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, resident and transient immune cells, and somatic stem cells.
Using rodent models, it was discovered that when mammary epithelial cells were transplanted into a mammary fat pads of pre-pubescent female mice devoid of endogenous epithelium an entire functional mammary outgrowth could be recapitulated regardless of age or parity status of the transplanted cells.
When dispersed cell suspensions of mammary epithelial cells are used in these models the cells participate in the formation of new microenvironments allowing for the normal development of mammary outgrowths.
Stem cells isolated from the central nervous system, bone marrow, testes, and embryonic stem cells have been introduced into reforming mammary microenvironments and adopted mammary epithelial phenotypes.
Lineage-traced daughter cells of the non-mammary stem cells participated in the normal development of mammary ductal trees and differentiated into luminal epithelial cells, myoepithelial cells, and milk protein-producing secretory epithelial cells during lactation.
The Booth Research Team concluded in their Oncotarget Research Paper, "our data collectively argue that epithelial cells provide signals that influence HER2 breast cancer cells to reduce tumour formation.
The reduction in tumour-forming capacity is due to a shift in gene expression profiles from a tumourigenic towards a normal epithelial profile.
The phenotypic switch, known as cancer cell redirection, includes changes in the activity of multiple intracellular signaling pathways.
Modulation of these affected pathways may be a new approach towards cancer treatments."
Source: IMPACT JOURNALS LLC
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