649 / DOI: 10.3332/ecancer.2016.649ecancer 10
Cancer-associated thrombotic microangiopathy refers to a group of disorders characterised by microvascular thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and ischaemic end-organ damage. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura are the two major subtypes. It can be a manifestation of the malignancy itself or a complication of its therapy. The addition of several new drugs to the therapeutic armamentarium of cancer has brought to light several novel causative factors of this hitherto uncommon complication. This review covers the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, complications, and the management of cancer-associated thrombotic microangiopathy. Careful review of the patient’s medical records coupled with the correlation of clinical findings and laboratory reports can help clinch the diagnosis and institute appropriate treatment on time.
Keywords: thrombotic microangiopathy, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, gemcitabine, mitomycin-C, haematopoietic stem cell transplant, immunotoxins, anti-VEGF, plasmapheresis
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